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    As of December 2008, 120 of India’s 523 parliament members were accused of crimes, under India’s First Information Report procedure wherein anyone can allege another of committing a crime. Many of the biggest scandals since 2010 have involved very high levels of government, including Cabinet Ministers and Chief Ministers, such as in the 2G spectrum scam The

    2G spectrum scam involved politicians and government officials in India illegally undercharging mobile telephony companies forfrequency allocation licenses, which they would then use to create 2G subscriptions for cell phones. The shortfall between the money collected and the money that the law mandated to be collected is estimated to be INR1766.45 billion (US$30 billion), as valued by theComptroller and Auditor General of India based on 3G and BWA spectrum auction prices in 2010. However, the exact loss is disputed. In a chargesheet filed on 2 April 2011 by the investigating agency, Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), the loss was pegged at INR309845.5 million (US$5.2 billion) whereas on 19 August 2011 in a reply to CBI, Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) said that the government gained over INR30 billion (US$510 million) by giving 2G spectrum.Similarly Kapil Sibal, the Minister of Communications & IT, claimed in 2011, during a press conference, that “zero loss” was caused by distributing 2G licenses on first-come-first-served basis. It has to be pointed out, however, that “zero loss” can simply mean that frequencies were not sold for less than cost. The phrase indicates nothing about whether the sale was a scam.