In Government Hospitals, corruption is associated with non availability/duplication of medicines, getting admission, consultations with doctors and availing diagnostic services.
National Rural Health Mission is another health care-related government programme that has been subject to large scale corruption allegations. This social spending and entitlement programme hoped to improve health care delivery across rural India. The programme has been managed since 2005 by the Ministry of Health of the Indian government. The Indian government mandated a spending of INR 277 billion in 2004–05, and increased it annually to be about 1% of India’s gross domestic product. The National Rural Health Mission programme has been clouded by a large-scale corruption scandal in which top government appointed officials were arrested, several of whom died under mysterious circumstances including one in prison. Corruption, waste and fraud-related losses from this government programme has been alleged to be INR 100 billion (US$2 billion).
Science and technology
CSIR, the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, has been flagged in ongoing efforts to root out corruption in India. Despite being established with the directive to do translational research and create real technologies, CSIR has been accused of transforming into a ritualistic, overly-bureaucratic organisation that does little more than churn out papers.
There are many issues facing Indian scientists, with some – such as MIT systems scientist VA Shiva Ayyadurai – calling for transparency, a meritocratic system, and an overhaul of the bureaucratic agencies that oversee science and technology.Sumit Bhaduri stated, “[t]he challenges of turning Indian science into part of an innovation process are many. … Many competent Indian scientists aspire to be ineffectual administrators [due to administrative power and political patronage], rather than do the kind of science that makes a difference.” Prime minister Manmohan Singh spoke at the 99th Indian Science Congress and commented on the state of the sciences in India, after an advisory council informed him there were problems with “the overall environment for innovation and creative work” and a ‘warlike’ approach was needed
National Rural Health Mission
National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) is an Indian health program for improving health care delivery across rural India. The mission, initially mooted for 7 years (2005-2012), is run by the Ministry of Health. The scheme proposes a number of new mechanism for healthcare delivery including training local residents as Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA),and the Janani Surakshay Yojana (motherhood protection program). It also aims at improving hygiene and sanitation infrastructure.Noted economists Ajay Mahal and Bibek Debroy have called it “the most ambitious rural health initiative ever”.
The mission has a special focus on 18 states Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar,Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Jammu and Kashmir, Manipur, Mizoram,Meghalaya, Madhya Pradesh, Nagaland, Orissa, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tripura, Uttarkhand andUttar Pradesh.
Under the mission, health funding had increased from INR27,700 crores in 2004-05 to INR39,000 crores in 2005-06 (from 0.95% of GDP to 1.05%) This has further increased from INR14,974 crores in 2007-08 to INR34,488 crores in 2012-13. As of 2009, economists noted that “the mid-term appraisal of the NRHM has found that there has been a significant improvement in health indicators even in this short period”However, in many situations, the state level apparatus have not been able to deploy the additional funds, often owing to inadequacies in the Panchayati Raj functioning. Fund utilization in many states is around 70%.
The largest programme under NRHM, covering India’s most populous state, Uttar Pradesh, has been clouded by a large-scalecorruption scandal in which two apex health officials have been murdered. The state government headed by Chief Minister Mayawatihas been accused of fraud to the tune of INR10,000 crores